howard_gardner

Howard Gardner

A Rounded Version:The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Excerpts from A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers (Fifth Edition) by Lee A. Jacobus

Evidence from brain research, human development, evolution, and cross-cultural comparisons was brought to bear in our search for the relevant human intelligences … (p.369)

Gardner first published the theory of multiple intelligences in Frames of Mind (1983).

In that book, he noted that the general attitude towards intelligence centers on the IQ (intelligence Quotient) test that Alfred Binet (1857-1911) devised. Binet believed that intelligence is measurable and that IQ tests result in numerical scores that are reliable indicators of a more or less permanent basic intelligence. Gardner offered several objections to that view. One was that IQ predictors might point to achievement in schools and colleges but did not point to achievement in life. (p.353)

Intrapersonal Intelligence

…intrapersonal intelligence – knowledge of the internal aspects of a person: access to one’s own feeling life, one’s range of emotions, the capacity to effect discriminations among these emotions and eventually label them and to draw upon them as a means of understanding and guiding one’s own behavior. (p.368)

Interpersonal Intelligence

Interpersonal intelligence builds on a core capacity to notice distinctions among others; in particular, contrasts in their moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions. In more advanced forms, this intelligence permits a skilled adult to read the intentions and desires of others, even when these have been hidden. (p.367)

Spatial Intelligence

Navigation around the Caroline Islands in the South Seas is accomplished without instruments. The position of the starts, as viewed from various islands, the weather patterns, and water color are the only signposts. Each journey is broken into a series of segments; and the navigator learns the position of the stars within each of these segments. During the actual trip the navigator must envision mentally a reference island as it passes under a particular star and from that he computes the number of segments completed, the proportion of the trip remaining, and any corrections in heading that are required.(p.365)

Linguistic Intelligence

At the age of ten, T.S. Elliot created a magazine called “Fireside” to which he was the sole contributor. In a three-day period during his winter vacation, he created eight complete issues. Each one included poems, adventure stories, a gossip column, and humor. Some of this material survives today and it displays the talent of the poet. (p.364)

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

Along with the companion skill of language, logical-mathematical reasoning provides the principal basis for IQ tests. (p.364)

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

At the moment the ball leaves the server’s racket, the brain calculates approximately where it will land and where the racket will intercept it. This calculation includes the initial velocity of the ball, combined with an input for the progressive decrease in velocity and the effect of wind and after the bounce of the ball. (p.362)

Musical Intelligence

… certain parts of the brain may play important roles in perception and production of music. These areas are characteristically located in the right hemisphere, although musical skill is not clearly “localized”, or located in a specifiable area, as language. …there is clear evidence for “amusia” or loss of musical ability. (p.361)