Neuroscience of Personality
The science is in! Each of the eight Jungian cognitive processes (Se, Si, Ne, Ni, Te, Ti, Fe, Fi) corresponds to a pattern of brain activity that unites brain, mind, culture, and context into a comprehensive model.
Dario Nardi, Neuroscience of Personality
Temperament is useful because it describes holistic qualities: it names people’s core needs and values, describes how people go about getting their underlying needs and values met, and how they tend to reshape their environment and grow … Each temperament is a pattern of interrelated qualities.” (page 77, Nardi)
All of us have the needs and values of all four temperaments but one is “home base” -the one that comes naturally to us, the one we go to when we are under stress, and we cannot seem to live without. It is the pattern we are most drawn to and find satisfying. Often, we dislike one temperament -we avoid or remain suspicious of it. (page 77, Nardi)
Professor Dario Nardi realizes Jung’s vision
Jung emphasized that the purpose of his theory of psychological types was not to classify human beings into categories, but rather to “provide a critical psychology which will make a methodical investigation and presentation of the empirical material possible.”
Jung’s vision for his theory to provide a theoretical framework for a future investigator’s experimental research has finally been realized in the work of Professor Dario Nardi at UCLA.
Dario Nardi’s brain mapping research using EEG technology has provided the first empirical evidence supporting Jung’s observational theory.
Jungian Cognitive Processes
Carl Jung defined two attitude-types (Extraverted and Introverted) as well as four function-types (Thinking, Feeling, Sensing, and Intuiting).
Jung observed that the function-types are always combined with an attitude type. In other words, the mental functions are observed in an extraverted or introverted variation.
Extraverted-Objective decision making
Introverted- Objective decision making
Extraverted-Subjective decision making
Introverted- Subjective decision making
Extraverted-Hands-On information gathering
Introverted-Hands-On information gathering
Extraverted-Theoretical information gathering
Introverted- Theoretical information gathering
Studies that utilize MBTI data often analyze results in groups of four, each group containing four types. Let’s call these groups quartets. Anecdotally, some quartets lend themselves well to particular applications such as communication, education, leadership, or so forth. (page 158, Nardi)
Nardi explored the following quartets in his brain mapping research:
|Career Choice||ST, SF, NT, NF|
|Communication Style||ET, EF, IT, IF|
|Decision-Making Style||TJ, FJ, TP, FP|
|Information Access||SP, SJ, NP, NJ|
|Learning Style||ES, IS, EN, IN|
|Needs and Values||SP, SJ, NT, NF|
|Work Style||IP, EP, IJ, EJ|
|*page 158, Neuroscience of Personality by Dario Nardi|
All the quartets performed better than chance. (page 158, Nardi)
Overall, the results suggest there are more than personality type “boxes”. Rather, there is an underlying set of dynamics. When people share a dynamic, they share brain activity that helps them get along. (page 158, Nardi)